Surface Irrigation Methods John T. Phelan and Wayne D. Criddle There are three general methods of applying irrigation water to the land. Varied quantities of water are allowed on the fields at different times. Types of Surface Irrigation Systems Surface irrigation systems can be classified into three major types: basin, border, and furrow systems. Basins range widely in size from only a few square feet (orchard crops) to a few hundred square feet. Throughout the world, this is the most commonly used type of irrigation process. The term ‘surface irrigation’ refers to a broad class of irrigation methods in which water is distributed over the field by overland flow. Hence, flow of water under surface irrigation comes under unsteady flow. Border method of irrigation is a method of surface flooding wherein the water is applied to the field divided into strips separated by parallel ridges (Fig. Types of Surface Irrigation Systems Furrow irrigation utilizes small channels or ditches between planted rows to convey water across a field. Common surface irrigation systems used are rill irrigation, furrow or border irrigation. Surface Irrigation; This type of irrigation relies on gravity flow to distribute water. The application of irrigation water where the entire surface of the soil is covered by ponded water. Surface Methods. There may be no method of controlling water flow other than the topography of the land. Early humans would have used this "low-tech" method of irrigating crops -- collect water in a bucket and pour it onto the fields. As a result it is very difficult to understand the hydraulics of surface irrigation. various irrigation systems to decide the merits and demerits of the potential alternates of irrigation system. 15.1a). Part 623 National Engineering Handbook Chapter 4 Surface Irrigation 4–iv (210–VI–NEH, September 2012) Table 4–1 General comparison of surface irrigation surface 4–10 methods Table 4–2 Average rooting depths selected crops in deep, 4–22 well-drained soils This is a tried and true method which could work for a variety of people in different growing situations and conditions. The common types of irrigation methods, along with their capabilities and limitations are covered in the following sections. While it is still a common method of irrigation, it also requires an extraordinary amount of water, lacks in uniformity and is the most difficult to manage due to its dependence on soil properties and field topography. Irrigation Methods Irrigation water may be applied to crops by flooding the field surface, by Surface Irrigation is a kind of irrigation where gravity works its best. With flood irrigation, the entire land area to be irrigated is covered with water. It is the most commonly used irrigation methods and is well suited to mild slopes as well as regular slopes. ­Though initially expensive -- between $500 and $1000 per acre -- and not suitable­ for many areas, the economical advantages of drip irrigation can be further enhanced by placing the irrigation tubing about 5 inches (about 12.7 centimeters) below the surface. In sprinkler irrigation the water is Surface Irrigation is an unchanged process and it is older than its recognition. The soil also con- veys and distributes the water over the field. Today, this is still one of the most popular methods of crop irrigation. Surface irrigation is one of the oldest irrigation techniques in the world and is still used the most out of all irrigation techniques across the globe. In surface irrigation the soil is the reservoir from which the plants draw the water they need. Down there, the water really does get straight to where it's needed - the roots of the plant. Surface irrigation also works best in soil with fine texture with medium to minimum infiltration rate. Surface Irrigation: In this method water flows and spreads over the surface of the land. Flood Irrigation (also called surface irrigation) uses the soil surface to flow water down the field from high to low areas. In Surface Irrigation, water is applied and distributed over the soil surface by the help of gravity. The basin system consists of level, diked areas that re-ceive undirected flow of water (Figure 1). A flow is introduced at one edge of the field and covers the field gradually. 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